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Cast Iron Composition

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The primary difference in production between wrought iron and cast iron is that cast iron is not worked with hammers and tools. There are also differences in composition— Cast iron, an alloy of iron that contains 2 to 4 percent carbon, along with varying amounts of silicon and manganese and traces of impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus. It is made by reducing iron ore in a blast furnace.


COMPOSITION

  • All cast irons contain more than 2% C.

  • Cast iron is the alloy of carbon with 1.7 to 4.5%

  • Carbon and 0.5 to 3% silicon.

  • But in some alloy it has Manganese 0.5 to

  • 1.0%, Phosphorous 0.1 to 0.9 %, & Sulphur

  • 0.07 to 0.10%.


A few common mechanical properties for cast iron include: Hardness – material’s resistance to abrasion and indentation. Toughness – material’s ability to absorb energy.
Ductility – material’s ability to deform without fracture.

Check Out This Video



Reading Material 

  1. [PDF] Cast Iron: History and Application

  2. [PPT] Metallurgical Properties of Cast Irons 

  3. [PDF] Grey Cast Iron Composition

  4. [PDF] Cast Iron – Materials Education


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WHAT EXACTLY IS PROCESSED FOOD ANYWAY?

rabbit chocolate

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If it’s boxed, bagged, canned or jarred and has a list of ingredients on the label, it’s processed. Methods used to process foods include:

  • Canning

  • Freezing

  • Refrigeration

  • Dehydration

  • Aseptic Processing

Processed foods have been altered from their natural state for “safety” and convenience reasons. And scary as it seems, about 90 percent of the money that Americans spend on food is used to buy processed items.

List Of Processed Food

Processed Fruits & Vegetables

Yes, even fruits and vegetables these days are being processed and sold.  Here are a few examples of processed fruits & vegetables:

  • Canned Fruits

  • Canned Vegetables

  • Frozen Fruits

  • Frozen Vegetables

  • French Fries

  • Ketchup

  • Pie Fillings

  • Jams & Jellies

  • Fruit Juice

  • Vegetable Juice

  • Tomato Soup

  • Tomato Pasta Sauce

  • Potato Chips

  • Corn Chips

  • Dried Fruits

  • Dried Vegetables

Processed Meats

Meat is a healthy part of most diets, but all too often they are processed and packaged to make them more convenient.  Check out these examples of processed meats:

  • Canned Meats (SPAM, Most Tuna Fish, etc)

  • Cured Meats (Lunch meats)

  • Ham

  • Sausage

  • Bacon

  • Some Frozen Meats

  • Gelatin

  • Chicken Nuggets

  • Most Pre-Cooked Meats

  • Cured Meats

  • Bologna

Processed Baked Goods

Baked goods are almost always processed when found in the supermarket.  Occasionally you will find freshly baked options but even those may have processed ingredients so make sure you ask how they were prepared before buying.

  • White Rice

  • Flour

  • Bread

  • Rolls

  • Buns

  • Bagels

  • Bread Sticks

  • Pizza Crusts

  • Taco Shells

  • Muffins

  • Macaroni

  • Pasta

  • Cake (and Cake Mixes)

  • Pie Crusts

  • Cookies

  • Pop Tarts (and similar foods)

  • Doughnuts

  • Pastries

Fast (Convenient) Foods

This is the one category where most people know that the foods are processed.  Despite this, however, they are still extremely popular.

  • Pizza Rolls

  • Microwave Pizza

  • Frozen Dinners

  • Granola Bars (and bagged granola)

  • Almost all Energy Bars

  • Protein Bars

  • Jalapeno Poppers

  • Microwave Tacos

  • Microwave Burritos

  • Raman Noodles

  • Most Canned Soups

  • Roasted & Salted Nuts

Dairy Foods

Dairy is another category where most people don’t realise that these foods are processed.  There are some items in this category that can be part of a healthy diet, but keeping the processing to a minimum is a good practice.

  • Cheeses

  • Cheese Foods

  • Milk (In some areas you can get raw milk, which is not processed)

  • Yogurt

  • Kiefer

  • Cream Cheese

Snack Foods

Snack foods are typically going to be heavily processed and should always be avoided completely or at least minimise as much as possible.

  • White Sugar

  • Brown Sugar

  • Powdered Sugar

  • Corn Syrup

  • Rice Syrup

  • Pudding

  • Soft Candies

  • Marshmallows

  • Caramel

  • Honey (You can buy raw honey, which is not processed)

  • Ice Cream

  • Whipped Cream

  • Chocolate

  • Shredded Coconut (You can buy unprocessed coconut in some areas, which is not processed)

  • Sugar Substituted (Equal, Sweet & Low, etc)

  • Maple Syrup

  • Hard Candy

Processed Beverages

Drinks, other than water, are almost always going to be processed in the supermarket. If you want to drink something unprocessed, consider juicing your own fruit at home.

  • Apple Juice

  • Orange Juice

  • Grape Juice

  • Grapefruit Juice

  • Cranberry Juice

  • Juice Flavored Drinks

  • All Soda

  • Instant Breakfasts

  • Flavored Waters

  • Coffee (you can buy raw coffee, which is unprocessed)

  • Tea (You can buy raw tea, which is unprocessed)

Oils, Fats, Salts & More

Oils, fats, and other products are typically going to be processed.

  • Cooking Spray

  • Margarine

  • Salad Dressings

  • BBQ Sauce

  • Most Seed Oils

  • Refined Oils

  • Peanut Butter

  • Cashew Butter

  • Mayonnaise

  • Soy Sauce

  • Vegetable Oils

What is Mise en place?

The easy answer is, “everything in its place.” It’s a French phrase meaning that everything is organized and ready…But it is sooo much more!

In the professional kitchen mise en place is more of a philosophy or a way of life rather than just a simple phrase. Mise en place is everything needed to make the shift as smooth as possible. We learn it, we teach it, we get it tattooed on our bodies! As Chef Randy Burns has said, “Mise en place is a state of Mind.” It becomes an integral part of how we think. Whether we are working to implement a new recipe, planning an off-site catered event, or going camping with the family, the philosophy of mise en place infuses our souls with the need to hope for the best and plan for the worst. Everything in its place. A plan for everything.

Proper mise en place means that you are the master of your domain. You know how many covers you should do tonight, you know if it’s a holiday, or if there’s some other special event going on which may impact your covers. If a prep cook does some of your mise then you have verified the quantities and seen where the backups are stored. Trust no one, you verify it yourself.

Mise en Place is defined as:

  • The Ethos of the kitchen

  • So much more than minced shallots

  • Hope for the best, plan for the worst

  • Seconds save minutes

  • The foundation of success

  • The foundation of a successful shift

  • It makes or breaks you

  • A way of life

  • Learn it, know it, live it

  • Prep, Attitude, Focus, Drive

  • Slapping Murphy’s Law into place

  • Telling that bitch Murphy’s Law to sit the fuck down

  • Organisation of product, tools, and mind

  • Seeing and preventing a problem before it arrives


“Mise en Place”; what an exquisite phrase, it slides right off the tongue, effortlessly, like a lightly seared fresh sea scallop drizzled with a rich lemon Beurre Blanc, garnished with a chiffonade of fresh “fine herbs” and shaved truffles…  Seriously, mise en place is the principle, the base, the philosophy that rules every cook’s life; it is a term not just applied to your prepared ingredients, your fridge with prepped meats, your base sauces, stocks, garnishes, etc. ready to assemble; it is your organization, your knowledge, your ability to work with others, (kitchen work is definitely a team activity), your mental ability and preparedness. It is a philosophy; a state of mind! There are so many meanings, connotations and levels of “mise en place” that you’re constantly fine tuning your perception and definition of it. A Cook’s life revolves around “mise en place” and it’s what “makes you, or breaks you”. You’re only as good as your mise en place. It encompasses your prep, cooking, serving, menu design and execution; your ordering, scheduling, managing of the kitchen. The concept of “mise en place” can be applied to virtually any circumstance or scenario. It has taken me years to begin understanding this application to ALL facets of the kitchen, of business, of life; it’s not just my tray with chopped shallots, garlic, various herbs, garnishes, etc. all ready to go into the frying pan ‘ala minute”, it’s applicable to any strategy or action, ; and I’m still learning this every day.

For such a small, eloquent phrase it carries a lot of power, weight and meaning.

Cleanliness/Hygiene and organisation is an integral part of “mise”, they go hand in hand, the sooner you recognise and embrace this fact the further ahead “of the game” you will be.


The Unspoken Laws Of The Kitchen (The Code)